Creativity – what could it look like in a school setting?

IMG_4382

Creativity is is not actually a single idea created in a single moment.

I’ve been spending some time thinking about the question – what could creativity actually look like in a classroom/school setting? And I’ve come to the conclusion that it’s not the absence of creativity in schools that we should be trying to address but the absence of student agency and effective teaching practice. And by agency, I mean every student being totally engaged with, and directing their own learning.

An analogy of the current prevailing teaching model is of a teacher pointing a fire hose at students and saying “open wide!” In contrast, the teaching model that defines high levels of student agency is of the water fountain that is available for students to drink from. Initially, the teacher’s task is to ensure that all children are taking on sufficient volumes of knowledge and are utilising it effectively. This task requires more than just curriculum knowledge. It requires skills of relationship – to know how much each child is willing and capable of absorbing and how willing and capable they are to apply that new knowledge. This is the human element of teaching – the teacher knowing every individual student’s capacity and being able to support them to build that capacity until learning becomes self-perpetuating. Students as self-directed learners etc.

It is at this point that creativity could flourish in a school setting. Students who are engaged and equipped with the essential knowledge can then springboard into creative pursuits. All that’s needed is a little bit of time, space and resources. How so? Because creativity is not actually a single idea created in a single moment. For example, take the creation of a unique dance. In a “creative” activity like producing a dance, most of the work is craft: the application of knowledge. You need to know how to dance – the technical qualities and features of a dance that the audience will recognise.

Nor are opportunities to be creative in the classroom limited to just the students. I am applying this same approach to creativity in how I teach. I have been teaching for a long time. I have built up a lot of experience. I know that the essential foundations of learning maths is familiarity with numbers – “come to the fountain and drink down some of this essential knowledge”. When I think the time is right, I start to introduce the idea of problem solving. Recently I have started to either,

  • ask the students to make their own problem and solve it, or
  • provide them with a problem with the answer and ask them to find as many different ways of getting to that answer.

It’s a very dynamic, oral-based process. Expectations are high. The children learn that they know better than anyone else what their ability/attitude level is. There are occasions of over or under reach which I need to remedy. Some need a bit of support. I help them fill in the knowledge gaps when necessary. Or better still, I get their student colleagues to help them do that. During this process I gain insights. I see light bulbs go on. It’s formative assessment at its most effective. I am looking to see who is working below, at or above their developmental level. I am in tune with every student’s academic and social level. And best of all, no one gets left behind.

Great effort. Now go do your work!

Ease Education: Teaching at a human scale.

You can also find Ease Education on Facebook and Twitter.

Some further reading on creativity can be found below…

Continue reading

Defining effective pedagogy.

MathsExerciseBook

Needless to say, tidy handwriting has no correlation to ability in maths

‘Pedagogy’ is a word you will see often on this site and occasionally I get asked what it means. The dictionary definition reads: “the method and practice of teaching”. But of course, I’m not going to leave it at that. I want to give a more practical, concrete definition of the word. To do so, I have provided the image (above) of a page from my year 6 maths exercise book from when I was attending an Auckland primary school in the 70’s. From looking at this exercise book it would be safe to say that a lot of time was spent copying down maths rules and completing maths problems that were written up on the blackboard. That was the pedagogy being utilised by my teacher at that time. I was a very compliant student and took pride in my handwriting ability. I wonder if every other 10 year old child in that class was able to produce beautifully written notes like that.

When I flick through the pages of this book it leads me to conclude that my aptitude and attitude in the subject of maths peaked around this time. In hindsight, I don’t think I was necessarily bad at maths. I would suggest that adding unequal fractions at 10 years old was a developmentally appropriate achievement. I can recall the proud moment in that year when I mastered this skill. I also recall being very scared of the teacher. And also, scared of being wrong. I have strong memories of being reprimanded for not being able to understand the concept of unequal fractions when it was first introduced by the teacher. There was a mysterious quality about maths that I never managed to unravel. Mostly it was about relying heavily on rules that we were required to learn by rote. But what did all those numbers actually mean? I don’t recall having opportunities to apply and test that knowledge. The learning that we were doing was taking place at a surface level only. And that sums up the difference between effective and non-effective pedagogy; the ability to go deeply into learning and do the high level – creating, generalising, predicting – type of thinking that I describe here.

Now I would like to apply this examination of effective pedagogy to the question of the merit of open plan classrooms. I have argued before that it is how teachers teach rather than where they teach that should be the main consideration. So here is an opportunity to speculate on whether my experience of maths pedagogy as a child would have been any better had my classroom at the time been an open plan classroom? Possibly yes and possibly no. Yes, because I could have been lucky and my teacher at the time could have been required to share a teaching space with a teacher who knew how to teach maths to 10 year olds in an effective way. So I could have been exposed to an effective teacher who employed effective pedagogy. Or maybe not. Maybe it would have been business as usual. Maybe all the teachers in the shared space were engaged in delivering the same pedagogy. And besides, even if there was a teacher in the space that was a practitioner of effective pedagogy, I have very good reason to suspect that it would not have made a significant difference to my maths. Why? Because to do so, the school environment would have needed to be very different. It would have needed to be one in which all the teachers were encouraged and willing to, in the words of Hattie…

“hold collaborative discussions with colleagues and students about the evidence of student achievement, thus making the effect of their teaching visible to themselves and to others.”

That last sentence – that’s the killer app. Experience tells me that the prerequisite cultural environments in which open, honest conversations between teachers and students in the classroom and between teachers themselves, about what’s working and what’s not, don’t really exist in the real world. Getting teachers to engage in meaningful and honest conversations of this kind is incredibly difficult. I can attest to that. It will take leaders who are confident and trusting, to create and sustain the necessary cultural environment to allow for these conversations to take place. In the absence of a conducive culture, any efforts to teach in an evidence based way and engage in meaningful conversations about that evidence tends to result in one being labeled as ‘disobedient’ or ‘not a team player’. Inevitably, breaking free from a traditional way of teaching – a familiar pedagogy, is not easy. The system is resistant to change. This explains why I no longer view this as a teaching problem, but as a people problem.

Pedagogy – there are a multitude of ways of doing it. But some ways are more effective than others.

Ease Education: Teaching at a human scale.

You can also find Ease Education on Facebook and Twitter.